Country Profiles:
Zambia

Zambia landlocked country in Southern Africa, neighboring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. takes its name from the Zambezi River, which drains all but a small northern part of the country. The capital city is Lusaka, in the south-central part of Zambia. Lusaka, is now one of Africa’s fastest-growing cities, while the historic town of Livingstone has become the ‘adventure capital’ of the whole of Africa.

According to World Atlas, More than 100,000 years ago, this ancient land is where mankind’s ancestors (the beginnings of the human race) lived. Economic and cultural activity flourished for centuries prior to the European exploitation. Although most of the villages were self-sufficient, long distance trading began to develop during the 11th and 12th centuries, and ultimately larger political units and more complex social structures resulted. In 1851 David Livingstone became the first Briton to step foot on Zambian soil as he explored the upper Zambezi River.

UNESCO Heritage sites in ZAMBIA include:

1. Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls.
Victoria Falls (Tokaleya Tonga: Mosi-oa-Tunya, “The Smoke that Thunders”) is a waterfall in southern Africa on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. It has been described by CNN as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the world.
David Livingstone, the Scottish missionary and explorer, is believed to have been the first European to view Victoria Falls on 16 November 1855, from what is now known as Livingstone Island, one of two land masses in the middle of the river, immediately upstream from the falls near the Zambian shore. Livingstone named his discovery in honor of Queen Victoria of Britain, but the indigenous Tonga name, Mosi-oa-Tunya—”The Smoke That Thunders”—continues in common usage as well. The World Heritage List officially recognizes both names.

The nearby national park in Zambia is named Mosi-oa-Tunya, whereas the national park and town on the Zimbabwean shore are both named Victoria Falls.

In the late 1800's, the country of Zambia was divided into two entities: the British South Africa Company, and North-Eastern Rhodesia controlled North-Western Rhodesia, towards the end of the nineteenth century.

These were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. The discovery of enormous copper deposits in 1928 saw an onslaught of immigration from Europeans, and the country quickly became the world’s 4th largest producer of copper. After many years of struggle with the British, Zambia gained independent on October 24th 1964, and the name was officially changed to Zambia. Prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the first inaugural president. Kaunda’s socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) maintained power from 1964 until 1991.

Edgar Lungu became the sixth president of Zambia in January 2015 after a victory to replace former leader Michael Sata, who died in office. He gained a new term in August 2016. According to the BBC, “Zambia, unlike most of its neighbors, has managed to avoid the war and upheaval that has marked much of Africa’s post-colonial history, earning itself a reputation for political stability.”

Zambia has a vast land and natural resource base this resource rich environment Zambia’s economy is heavily dependent on mining, in particular the mining of copper, however, its over-reliance on copper has made it vulnerable to falling commodity prices. Other minerals worked in Zambia include cobalt, gold, Iron ore, lead and zinc and silver. There is an increasing awareness of the value of Zambia’s gemstones. Zambia’s emerald deposits are among the worlds largest. Hydropower represents Zambia’s richest energy source. Lake Kariba was formed by damming the Zambezi River in the Kariba Gorge for hydropower. An earlier power station was formed at Victoria Falls, spectacular waterfall on the Zambia and Zimbabwe borders. Approximately twice as wide and twice as deep as Niagara Falls, the waterfall spans the entire breadth of the Zambezi River.

Most Zambians speak Bantu languages of the Niger-Congo language family. There are approximately 73 ethnic groups, most of which are Bantu-speaking. Almost 90% of Zambians belong to the nine main ethnolinguistic groups: the Nyanja-Chewa, Bemba, Tonga, Tumbuka, Lunda, Luvale, Kaonde, Nkoya and Lozi.Zambia is one of the most highly urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa with 44% of the population concentrated in a few urban areas along the major transport corridors, while rural areas are sparsely populated. The official language of Zambia is English. Thus most of the population speak Bemba and Nyanja and in the Copperbelt; Nyanja is dominantly spoken in Lusaka and Eastern Zambia.

Cuisine in Zambia will satisfy every visitor’s gastronomic tastes. Spiced with the exotic flavors of the many tribes, Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Chinese and Japanese specialty meals), European, Italian and American. Popular dishes includes: Nshima (a stiff porridge made from ground maize), Ifisashi (green vegetables in peanut sauce), Mealie (Bread with Blackened Chilies), Polenta pie, Cassava pancakes, Sorghum soup, Corned beef cakes, Insects such as grasshoppers, caterpillars, cicadas and flying ants are delicacies.

Zambia’s culture has been an integral part of their development post-independence such as the uprising of cultural villages and private museums. The music which introduced dance is part of their cultural expression and it embodies the beauty and spectacle of life in Zambia, from the intricacies of the talking drums to the Kamangu drum used to announce the beginning of Malaila traditional ceremony. Dance as a practice serves as a unifying factor bringing the people together as one.

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