Country Profiles:

Sudan is also known as North Sudan since South Sudan‘s independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan. The name Sudan derives from the Arabic expression bilād al-sūdān (“land of the blacks”), by which medieval Arab. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red SeaEritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. It is the third largest country in Africa. The River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, but it became independent in 2011 Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in economic, political and social domination between the Northern Sudanese and the non-Muslim (Christian), non-Arab southern Sudanese.  The government of Sudan gave its blessing for an independent South Sudan, where the mainly Christian and Animist people had for decades been struggling against rule by the Arab Muslim north.

The first civil war ended in 1972, but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords; a final Naivasha peace treaty of January 2005 granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years, after which a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held. In 2007, the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement withdrew from the government due to the slow implementation of the 2005 peace agreement. In July 2008, ten criminal charges were leveled against President Omar al-Bashir, in which he was accused of sponsoring war crimes and crimes against humanity. Despite the charges against him, al-Bashir was a candidate in the 2010 Sudanese presidential election, and ultimately declared the winner. The current president was elected in.

UNESCO Heritage sites in Sudan include:

1. Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe

The site was the centre of the Kingdom of Kush, a major force active from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE. It is home to pyramids, temples, and domestic buildings, among other vestiges.

2. Gebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region

The five sites in the Nile Valley feature temples that are testimonial to the Napatan and Meroitic cultures. The ruins around Gebel Barkal include at least 13 temples and 3 palaces, that were for the first time described by European explorers in the 1820s. In 1862 five inscriptions from the Third Intermediate Period were recovered by an Egyptian officer and transported to the Cairo Museum, but not until 1916 were scientific archeological excavations performed by a joint expedition of Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston under the direction of George Reisner. From the 1970s, explorations continued by a team from the University of Rome La Sapienza, under the direction of Sergio Donadoni, that was joined by another team from the Boston Museum, in the 1980s, under the direction of Timothy Kendall. The larger temples, such as that of Amun, are even today considered sacred to the local population.

3. Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay – Mukkawar Island Marine National Park

Situated in the central Red Sea, Sanganeb, Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island feature a diverse system of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, beaches and islets, and host populations of seabirds, marine mammals, fish, sharks, turtles, manta rays and dugongs.

Sudan is one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

Oil is currently the main export and production is increasing. Agriculture production is the most important sector for the economy, employing 80% of the workforce. Oil is a lucrative natural resource. mineral deposits, but not all are exploited. They include golduraniumchromitegypsummica, marble, and iron ore. Sudan’s irrigated agriculture is thus dependent on abundant supplies of water from the two main branches of the Nile to produce the bulk of the country’s commercial crops. Sudan is a leading producer of gum Arabic, a water-soluble gum obtained from acacia trees and used in the production of adhesives, candy, and pharmaceuticals. The northern woodlands have been deforested by the extraction of wood for fuel and charcoal.

Sudan has 597 groups that speak over 400 different languages and dialects. Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in Sudan. They are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak Sudanese Arabic, some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects like Awadia and Fadnia tribes and Bani Arak tribes who speak Najdi Arabic; and Rufa’aBani HassanAl-AshrafKinanah and Rashaida who speak Hejazi Arabic.  The Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the Sudanese population. Others include the Arabized ethnic groups of NubiansZaghawa, and Copts. Approximately 70 languages are native to Sudan. Sudanese Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the country. It is the variety of Arabic, an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch spoken throughout Sudan. Official languages are Arabic and English.

Cuisine in Sudan It may seem unusual to a Western palate, but porridge is actually one of the main foods eaten in Sudan – and not just for breakfast! Generally made with wheat, sorghum or corn flour, the starch is served alongside stews. Broad bean balls are also popular. Known as tamayya, the dish is often prepared a group, Ful Medames Sudanese Fava Beans, Kofta, meatballs in tomato sauce, Fenugreek porridge – medeeda hilba, Mahshi, stuffed zucchini and bell peppers, Kahk Egyptian Cookies, Tamarind Juice.

According to Sudanese Embassy, Sudan’s “whirling dervishes” are famed throughout the world for their spell-binding dances, in which they are accompanied by rhythmic drumming, as they gradually work themselves into a trance. Dervishes are Muslim devotees. Lyrics are all-important in Sudanese music, with new words often made up on the spot for a special occasion such as a wedding. Traditional instruments include tom-toms, rababas (viol-like stringed instruments with a hide-covered body), and the oud (a lute).

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