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SOUTH AFRICA

South Africa is the southernmost country on the continent, bordered by Namibia to the northwest, by Botswana and Zimbabwe to the north, and by Mozambique and Swaziland to the northeast and east. Lesotho, an independent country, is an enclave in the eastern part of the republic, entirely surrounded by South African territory. South Africa’s coastlines border the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the southwest. The country possesses two small subAntarctic islands, Prince Edward and Marion, situated in the Indian Ocean. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with close to 56 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation.

 

The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom.

The Zulu nation spectacularly defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana. Eventually the Zulu nation's independence. The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War (1880–1881) using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions. The British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and new strategy in the Second Boer War (1899–1902) but suffered heavy casualties through attrition; nonetheless, they were ultimately successful in colonizing South Africa. Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence. Eight years after the end of the Second Boer War and after four years of negotiation, an act of the British Parliament (South Africa Act 1909) granted nominal independence, while creating the Union of South Africa on May 31 1910.

 

The Natives' Land Act of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by blacks; in which  natives can only control 7% of the land. In 1931 the union was fully sovereign from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, which abolished the last powers of the British Government on the country. In 1934, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United Party, seeking reconciliation between Afrikaners and English-speaking "Whites". In 1939 the party split over the entry of the Union into World War II as an ally of the United Kingdom, a move which the National Party followers strongly opposed. The Nationalist Government classified all peoples into three races and developed rights and limitations for each. The white minority (less than 20% of the population controlled the vastly larger native majority. The legally institutionalized segregation became known as apartheid. While whites enjoyed the highest standard of living in the country, the black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy. The security forces cracked down on internal dissent, and violence became widespread. the African National Congress lead by Nelson Mandela, the Azanian People's Organization, and the Pan-Africanist Congress furious fought to abolish apartheid and lead to the imprisonment of the leaders of ANC and banned the organization.

 

In 1990 the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the ANC and other political organizations. It released Nelson Mandela from prison after twenty-seven years serving a sentence for sabotage. A negotiation process followed. With approval from predominantly white referendum, the government repealed apartheid legislation. Eventually forced to confront the untenable nature of ethnic separatism in a multicultural land, the South African government of F.W. de Klerk (1989–94) began to repeal apartheid laws. That process in turn set in motion a transition toward universal suffrage and a true electoral democracy, which culminated in the 1994 election of a government led by the black majority under the leadership of the dissident Nelson Mandela. As this transition attests, the country has made remarkable progress in establishing social equity in a short period of time since Mandela came to power.

 

South Africa has a mixed economy, the second largest in Africa after Nigeria.  Gold is the most important mineral and it is the world’s largest producer with and large reserves. Ever since the Kimberley diamond strike of 1868, South Africa has been a world leader in diamond production with seven large diamond mines around the country. South Africa is rich in a variety of minerals including reserves of iron ore, platinum, manganese, chromium, copper, uranium, silver, beryllium, and titanium. It is the world's largest producer of chrome, manganese, platinum, vanadium and vermiculite. It is the second largest producer of ilmenite, palladium, rutile and zirconium. It is also the world's third largest coal exporter. There are moderate quantities of natural gas and synthetic fuel is made from coal at two large plants in the provinces of Free State and Mpumalanga.

 

South Africa is renowned for its varied topography, great natural beauty, and cultural diversity, all of which have made the country a favored destination for travelers since the legal ending of apartheid in 1994. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Northern Sotho, Sotho, Swazi, Tswana, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa, and Zulu. In this regard it is third only to Bolivia and India. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most white and colored South Africans; English reflects the legacy of British colonialism, and is commonly used in public and commercial life, though it is fourth-ranked as a spoken first language. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages.

 

In South Africa, you'll find dishes influenced by the indigenous population, along with the Dutch, French, Indians and Malaysians and as such it offers a vibrant cuisine that will excite your palate. Cape Malay curry, Chakalaka & pap, Biltong & droewors, Braai/Shisa nyama, Boerewors, Bobotie, Malva pudding, Amarula Don Pedro, Melktert. The South African music scene includes both popular (jive) and folk forms. Pop styles are based on four major sources, Zulu isicathamiya singing and harmonic mbaqanga. The latter field of musicians included prominent activists and thinkers, including Hugh Masekela, Abdullah Ibrahim (formerly known as 'Dollar Brand'), Kippie Moeketsi, Sathima Bea Benjamin, Chris McGregor, Johnny Dyani and Jonas Gwangwa. Ladysmith Black Mambazo, headed by the sweet soprano of Joseph Shabalala, Lucky Dube was the first major South African artists.

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UNESCO Heritage sites includes:

1. Vredefort Dome

The crater, with a diameter of 190 km (120 mi), is the largest, oldest, and most deeply eroded astrobleme found on Earth, dating back more than two billion years.

2. Robben Island.

Between the 17th and 20th century, the island was used as a prison, including for political prisoners, a hospital for socially unacceptable groups, and a military base. Nobel Laureate and former President of South Africa Nelson Mandela was imprisoned there for 18 of the 27 years he served behind bars before the fall of apartheid. To date, three of the former inmates of Robben Island have gone on to become President of South Africa: Nelson Mandela, Kgalema Motlanthe, and current President Jacob Zuma.

3. Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape.

The mountainous desert sustains the semi-nomadic livelihood of the Nama, which includes seasonal migrations that have gone unchanged for two millennia.

4. Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape.

The open savanna landscape lies at the confluence of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers. It was the heart of the Mapungubwe Kingdom until the 14th century, when the area was abandoned, leaving untouched remains of palaces and settlements.

5. Maloti-Drakensberg Park.

The park features incisive dramatic cutbacks, golden sandstone ramparts, and the largest concentration of cave art in Sub-Saharan Africa.

6. ǂKhomani Cultural Landscape.

The ǂKhomani Cultural Landscape is located at the border with Botswana and Namibia in the northern part of the country, coinciding with the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park (KGNP). The large expanse of sand contains evidence of human occupation from the Stone Age to the present and is associated with the culture of the formally nomade ǂKhomani San people and the strategies that allowed them to adapt to harsh desert conditions.

7. iSimangaliso Wetland Park.

The park features a variety of landforms, including coral reefs, long sandy beaches, coastal dunes, lake systems, and papyrus wetland, caused by fluvial, marine and aeolian processes.

8. Fossil Hominid Sites of South Africa.

The various fossil sites contain traces of human occupation and evolution dating 3.3 million years.

9. Cape Floral Region Protected Areas.

The site consists of eight protected areas that are among the richest in plant life worldwide, containing nearly 20% of Africa's total flora. Its scientific value is demonstrated by the presence of fire and radiation adaptivity in plants and seed dispersal by insects.

 
SWAZILAND

 

Swaziland, sometimes called kaNgwane or Eswatini, officially Kingdom of Swaziland, Swazi Umbuso Weswatini, landlocked country in the eastern flank of South Africa. It is neighbored by Mozambique to its northeast and by South Africa to its north, west and south; it is a landlocked country. The country and its people take their names from Mswati II, the 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified. The country is an absolute monarchy, ruled by Ngwenyama ("King") Mswati III since 1986. He is head of state and appoints the country's prime ministers and a number of representatives of both chambers (Senate and House of Assembly) in the country's parliament. Elections are held every five years to determine the House of Assembly and the Senate majority. The administrative center is Mbabane, the former capital of the British colonial administration. The national capital is the seat of King Mswati III and his mother, the Ndlovukati, some 11 miles from Mbabane, at Phondvo in the vicinity of Lobamba, where the houses of parliament and other national institutions are situated.

In 1899, as a result of the Anglo-Boer war, Britain transformed Swaziland into a protectorate under its direct control. Subsequently, throughout the colonial period, Swaziland was governed by a resident administrator, one that ruled according to legal orders issued by the British High Commissioner for South Africa. Britain expected that Swaziland would ultimately be incorporated into South Africa, however South Africa's intensified racial discrimination post-World War II pushed the United Kingdom to arrange for the independence of Swaziland. Political parties began to form in the 1960s, including the Imbokodvo National Movement (INM) run by King Sobhuza II and his Inner Council. Swaziland gained its independence in 1968 with the INM winning 75% of the vote. In 1973, King Sobhuza replaced the constitution and dissolved the parliament, assuming all powers. Eventually a new parliament formed, one that was chosen in part by elections and direct appointment by the king. According to UNICEF Swaziland has the highest HIV infection rate in the world (26% of all adults) and the lowest life expectancy at 32 years of age.

Agriculture, manufacturing and the service industry are the dominant factors of the Swaziland economy. The processing of agricultural, forest, and livestock products forms the backbone of the industrial sector. Other manufactures include textiles and clothing, which expanded enormously in the 1980s. The country ha limited mineral resources, although, asbestos and coal are the most important minerals. Also, diamonds have been growing in importance and are now the second largest mineral export after asbestos. Government revenue is derived principally from receipts from the Southern African Customs Union, sales tax, and corporate and personal taxation.

The majority of Swaziland's population is ethnically Swazi, mixed with a small number of Zulu and White Africans, mostly people of British and Afrikaner descent. The Swazi nation is an amalgamation of more than 70 clans. Their chiefs form the traditional hierarchy under the ngwenyama and ndlovukazi, who are of the largest clan, the Dlamini. Many of the clans were of Sotho and Nguni origins that entered the country with the Dlamini in the early 19th century. SiSwati (also known as Swati, Swazi or Siswati) is a Bantu language of the Nguni Group, spoken in Swaziland and South Africa. Both SiSwati and English are official languages of Swaziland.

Cuisine in Swaziland is largely determined by the seasons and the geographical region. Staple foods in Swaziland include sorghum and maize, often served with goat meat, The farming industry mainly depends on sugar cane, tobacco, rice, corn, peanuts, and the exportation of goat meat and beef. Many Swazis are subsistence farmers who supplement their diet with food bought from markets. Popular dishes includes: Sidvudvu

(Porridge made of pumpkin mixed with cornmeal); Umncweba (Dried uncooked meat (biltong); Umkhunsu (Cooked and dried meat); Siphuphe semabhontjisi (Thick porridge made of mashed beans); Tinkhobe (Boiled whole maize); Umbidvo wetintsanga (Cooked pumpkin tops (leaves) mixed with ground nuts); Sishwala (Thick porridge normally served with meat or vegetables); Incwancwa (Sour porridge made of fermented cornmeal); Sitfubi (Fresh milk cooked and mixed with cornmeal).

 

Swaziland has a vast array of musical talent, ranging from traditional music genres to hip hop. Traditional music is usually sung during traditional ceremonies such as Umhlanga, Incwala and during traditional weddings. There are some traditional artists who have taken it to the stage with the backing of the traditional violin (Makoyane) and there are those that sing Mbacanga. Gospel is the current leading music genre in Swaziland, boasting a large following in the small kingdom. Other music genres include Kwaito, House, Jazz, Afro-soul, Choral, RnB and Hip Hop.

Landmarks and major tourist sites in Swaziland include:

  • Sibebe Rock

  • Ngwenya Iron Ore Mine

  • Swazi Cultural Village

  • Ngwempisi Gorge

  • Nsangwini Rock Paintings

  • King Sobhuza II Memorial Park

  • Phophonyane Waterfalls / Phophonyane Falls House of Parliament

  • Lion Cavern (Ngwenya)

  • All Saints Cathedral (Mbabane).

 
ZAMBIA

 

Zambia landlocked country in Southern Africa, neighboring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. takes its name from the Zambezi River, which drains all but a small northern part of the country. The capital city is Lusaka, in the south-central part of Zambia. Lusaka, is now one of Africa’s fastest-growing cities, while the historic town of Livingstone has become the ‘adventure capital’ of the whole of Africa. 

 

According to World Atlas, More than 100,000 years ago, this ancient land is where mankind's ancestors (the beginnings of the human race) lived. Economic and cultural activity flourished for centuries prior to the European exploitation. Although most of the villages were self-sufficient, long distance trading began to develop during the 11th and 12th centuries, and ultimately larger political units and more complex social structures resulted. In 1851 David Livingstone became the first Briton to step foot on Zambian soil as he explored the upper Zambezi River.

 

In the late 1800's, the country of Zambia was divided into two entities: the British South Africa Company, and North-Eastern Rhodesia controlled North-Western Rhodesia, towards the end of the nineteenth century. These were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. The discovery of enormous copper deposits in 1928 saw an onslaught of immigration from Europeans, and the country quickly became the world's 4th largest producer of copper. After many years of struggle with the British, Zambia gained independent on October 24th 1964, and the name was officially changed to Zambia. Prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the first inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) maintained power from 1964 until 1991.

 

Edgar Lungu became the sixth president of Zambia in January 2015 after a victory to replace former leader Michael Sata, who died in office. He gained a new term in August 2016. According to the BBC, "Zambia, unlike most of its neighbors, has managed to avoid the war and upheaval that has marked much of Africa's post-colonial history, earning itself a reputation for political stability."

 

Zambia has a vast land and natural resource base this resource rich environment Zambia’s economy is heavily dependent on mining, in particular the mining of copper, however, its over-reliance on copper has made it vulnerable to falling commodity prices. Other minerals worked in Zambia include cobalt, gold, Iron ore, lead and zinc and silver. There is an increasing awareness of the value of Zambia’s gemstones. Zambia’s emerald deposits are among the worlds largest. Hydropower represents Zambia’s richest energy source. Lake Kariba was formed by damming the Zambezi River in the Kariba Gorge for hydropower. An earlier power station was formed at Victoria Falls, spectacular waterfall on the Zambia and Zimbabwe borders. Approximately twice as wide and twice as deep as Niagara Falls, the waterfall spans the entire breadth of the Zambezi River.

Most Zambians speak Bantu languages of the Niger-Congo language family. There are approximately 73 ethnic groups, most of which are Bantu-speaking. Almost 90% of Zambians belong to the nine main ethnolinguistic groups: the Nyanja-Chewa, Bemba, Tonga, Tumbuka, Lunda, Luvale, Kaonde, Nkoya and Lozi.Zambia is one of the most highly urbanized countries in sub-Saharan Africa with 44% of the population concentrated in a few urban areas along the major transport corridors, while rural areas are sparsely populated. The official language of Zambia is English. Thus most of the population speak Bemba and Nyanja and in the Copperbelt; Nyanja is dominantly spoken in Lusaka and Eastern Zambia.

Cuisine in Zambia will satisfy every visitor’s gastronomic tastes. Spiced with the exotic flavors of the many tribes, Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Chinese and Japanese specialty meals), European, Italian and American. Popular dishes includes: Nshima (a stiff porridge made from ground maize), Ifisashi (green vegetables in peanut sauce), Mealie (Bread with Blackened Chilies), Polenta pie, Cassava pancakes, Sorghum soup, Corned beef cakes, Insects such as grasshoppers, caterpillars, cicadas and flying ants are delicacies.

Zambia's culture has been an integral part of their development post-independence such as the uprising of cultural villages and private museums. The music which introduced dance is part of their cultural expression and it embodies the beauty and spectacle of life in Zambia, from the intricacies of the talking drums to the Kamangu drum used to announce the beginning of Malaila traditional ceremony. Dance as a practice serves as a unifying factor bringing the people together as one.

Landmarks and major tourist sites in Zambia include:

  • Victoria Falls (Livingstone)

  • Lake Tanganyika (the world’s longest lake)

  • Lake Mweru

  • Lake Kariba

  • Zambezi River

  • Luangwa river

  • Kafue river

  • Chishimba Falls (Kasama)

  • Railway Museum (Livingstone)

  • Zambia National Museum (Lusaka)

  • Devil's Pool (Livingstone)

  • Rhino Walk - Mosi oa Tunya Park (Livingstone)

  • Victoria Falls (Mosi-oa-Tunya)

  • National Park (Victoria Falls)

  • Livingstone Museum (Livingstone)

  • Chaminuka Game Reserve (Lusaka)

  • Lower Zambezi National Park (Lusaka)

  • Livingstone Reptile Park (Livingstone)

  • Kapishya Hot Springs (North Luangwa National Park)

  • Royal Livingstone Express (Livingstone)

  • Lion Encounter (Victoria Falls)

  • South Luangwa National Park (Mpika)

  • Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage (Chingola)

  • Mukuni Village (Victoria Falls)

  • Zambezi Eco Adventures (Livingstone)

  • Kalimba Reptile Park (Lusaka)

  • Kafue National Park

  • Sunday Crafts Market (Lusaka)

  • The Choma Museum and Crafts Centre (Choma)

  • Arcades Shopping Mall (Lusaka)

  • Eastpark Mall (Lusaka)

  • Cathedral of The Holy Cross Lusaka (Lusaka).

UNESCO Heritage sites in ZAMBIA include:

1. Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls.

Victoria Falls (Tokaleya Tonga: Mosi-oa-Tunya, "The Smoke that Thunders") is a waterfall in southern Africa on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. It has been described by CNN as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the world.

David Livingstone, the Scottish missionary and explorer, is believed to have been the first European to view Victoria Falls on 16 November 1855, from what is now known as Livingstone Island, one of two land masses in the middle of the river, immediately upstream from the falls near the Zambian shore. Livingstone named his discovery in honor of Queen Victoria of Britain, but the indigenous Tonga name, Mosi-oa-Tunya—"The Smoke That Thunders"—continues in common usage as well. The World Heritage List officially recognizes both names.

The nearby national park in Zambia is named Mosi-oa-Tunya, whereas the national park and town on the Zimbabwean shore are both named Victoria Falls.

 
ZIMBABWE

Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare (formerly, Salisbury).

In the late 19th century, European colonists arrived with the British South Africa Company, and acquired rights to mine the area. Mass settlement ultimately occurred, and the region was renamed Rhodesia in honor of Cecil Rhodes. Formerly the self-governing British Crown, colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia.

Rhodesia evolved into a " white man's country" orchestrated by the British. This takeover  prompted national pride and local guerrilla wars that soon became a major civil war and 15-year period of white-dominated minority rule, instituted after the minority regime’s so-called Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) in 1965. Zimbabwe achieved majority rule and internationally recognized independence in April 18th 1980.  Once it gained its freedom, it called itself Zimbabwe, a name literally means "House of Stone." This name comes from the 800-year-old stone ruins left by the Shona people. The descendants of the Shona people make up 77 percent of the Zimbabwean population. Since Independence Day, Robert Mugabe, the nation's first prime minister, has dominated the country's political system. At the start of his administration he established a one-party socialist institution. During his long term in office, his reputation as a champion of the anticolonial movement changed (for the worse) to an authoritarian ruler responsible for ruining the country's economy and for egregious human rights abuses. Mugabe finally resigned in November 2017 in the midst of a dramatic military takeover, Mugabe resigned after 37 years in office and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. He is to serve out Mr. Mugabe's term until elections scheduled for August 2018.

The mining sector remains very lucrative, with some of the world's largest platinum reserves being mined by Anglo American plc and Impala Platinum. The Marange diamond fields, discovered in 2006, are considered the biggest diamond find in over a century. The rise in gold prices in the 1970s revived gold as the country’s leading export and led to the reopening in 1979–80 of more than 100 dormant mines. Nickel mining began on a commercial scale in the late 1960s. Zimbabwe’s huge coal reserves are estimated to be about 30 billion tons, much of it desirable low-sulfur bituminous coal. Other minerals such as asbestos and copper have increased. Coal is the country’s primary energy source. A growing percentage of the coal utilized is transformed first into electricity by thermal generating plants fueled by coal. Electric power is also generated at the huge Kariba Dam, which Zimbabwe shares with Zambia, on the Zambezi River. Zimbabwe's commercial farming sector was traditionally a source of exports and foreign exchange, however, the government's land reform program badly damaged the sector, turning Zimbabwe into a net importer of food products.

Bantu-speaking ethnic groups make up 98% of the population. More than two-thirds of Zimbabweans speak Shona as their first language, while about one out of six speak Ndebele. Both Shona and Ndebele are Bantu languages. Zimbabwe’s ethnic and linguistic diversity is reflected in the 2013 constitution, which gives official status to 16 languages: Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Khoisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangaan, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa.

Cuisine in Zimbabwe interestingly straightforward and pretty much revolves around staple foods. The most common of which is sadza, a thick porridge made of white maize

Biltong (sun-dried, salted meat cut into strips similar to beef jerky); Sadza ( a cornmeal-based dietary staple of Zimbabwe is also the national dish); Mapopo (Papaya) Candy; Kapenta (tiny dried fish, used as a snack); Dovi (Peanut Butter Stew); Mopane worms (edible caterpillars usually eaten as is or with sadza); Boerewors (a coiled beef sausage).

Zimbabwe’s traditional music is diverse depending on the region of the country. The Mbira, is a musical style synonymous with Chimurenga, which is a Shona word that means a struggle. Zimbabwe’s wars against the settler regime are called Chimurenga. Prior to independence Chimurenga was sung as a morale booster to the liberation fighters. Following independence, Chimurenga music usually delves on the social injustices perpetrated by the government. The music was pioneered by Thomas Mapfumo. other musical styles includes; Sungura (a Zimbabwean adaptation of the Congolese rhumba); Marimba is an instrument popular in larger parts of the country.

Landmarks and major tourist sites in Zimbabwe include:

  • The Ruins of Great Zimbabwe (are the remains of a lost civilization)

  • Khami Ruins (Bulawayo)

  • Dananombe Ruins (Bulawayo)

  • Victoria Falls Bridge (Victoria Falls)

  • Crocodile Ranch (Victoria Falls)

  • World's View (Nyanga)

  • Great Zimbabwe (Masvingo)

  • Matobo Hills (Matobo National Park - The Matopos)

  • Cecil Rhode's Burial Place (Matobo)

  • National Park (The Matopos)

  • Nesbitt Castle (Bulawayo)

  • Raintree Venue (Harare)

  • Balancing Rocks (Harare)

  • Prince of Wales View (Mutare)

  • Old Bulawayo (Bulawayo)

  • Holy Trinity Catholic Cathedral (Mutare)

  • St Marys Cathedral (Bulawayo)

  • Anglican Cathedral (Harare)

  • Al Abbas Mosque (Harare).

UNESCO Heritage sites in Zimbabwe include:

1. Khami Ruins National Monument

It was once the capital of the Kingdom of Butua of the Torwa dynasty. It is now a national monument, and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1986. The settlement that we see today was a development of the architectural form that emerged at Great Zimbabwe in the 13th century AD and a local Leopard's Kopje culture that built platforms of rough walling on which houses would be constructed. Khami marks an innovation that recognised the environment in which was built. The area around Khami, being riverine, is hot and had problems with malaria. The stone found at Khami (laminar granite) was different from that found in other areas of Zimbabwe (biotite).

2.  Mana Pools National Park, Sapi and Chewore Safari Areas.

The park, located on the banks of the Zambezi River, features a variety of wild animals, such as buffalo, leopards, cheetahs and Nile crocodiles.

3. Matobo Hills

The large boulders have been used as natural shelters since the early Stone Age and feature a collection of rock paintings. The hills were formed over 2 billion years ago with granite being forced to the surface, this has eroded to produce smooth "whaleback dwalas" and broken kopjes, strewn with boulders and interspersed with thickets of vegetation. Mzilikazi, founder of the Ndebele nation, gave the area its name, meaning 'Bald Heads'.

4. Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls.

Victoria Falls (Tokaleya Tonga: Mosi-oa-Tunya, "The Smoke that Thunders") is a waterfall in southern Africa on the Zambezi River at the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. It has been described by CNN as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of the world.

David Livingstone, the Scottish missionary and explorer, is believed to have been the first European to view Victoria Falls on 16 November 1855, from what is now known as Livingstone Island, one of two land masses in the middle of the river, immediately upstream from the falls near the Zambian shore. Livingstone named his discovery in honour of Queen Victoria of Britain, but the indigenous Tonga name, Mosi-oa-Tunya—"The Smoke That Thunders"—continues in common usage as well. The World Heritage List officially recognizes both names.

The nearby national park in Zambia is named Mosi-oa-Tunya, whereas the national park and town on the Zimbabwean shore are both named Victoria Falls.

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