The Adventure

Summer Destinations



Algeria is the largest country on the continent as of 2011 since South Sudan became independent from Sudan  splitting into two countries which decrease the landmass. Algeria is also the 10th largest country in the world. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. Located in the Norther region call the Maghreb (Arabic: “West”), basically any countries on the North west of Egypt. The weather of the Maghreb is characterized by prevailing westerly winds, which drop most of their moisture on the northern slopes and coastal plain, leaving little for the southern slopes. Algeria extends southward deep into the heart of the Sahara, a forbidding desert where the Earth’s hottest surface temperatures have been recorded  constituting more than four-fifths of the country’s area. Hence, the Sahara and its extreme climate dominates the country.


Algeria only has 3% of arable land. From 1962 to 1980, the economy was largely based on agricultural production. However, the country is also rich in natural resources despite its dominance of the extreme Sahara  climate and limited arable land. The country is rich in minerals such as lead, iron ore and zinc, and energy sources, specifically petroleum and natural gas. These resources have caused Algeria to shift from focusing on agriculture, which has led to an increase in the country's imports - about 45%. The  oil production has tremendously increase since 1980 with the peak years of production spanning from 2005 to 2008, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Over the past 20 years, the nation's production has been significantly higher than its consumption, increasing the opportunities for exportation. Algeria is currently the third largest oil producer on the continent and ranked top ten in the world. Algeria has an oil reserve of about 12 billion barrels and a daily production capacity of 1.7 million BPD, according to Africa Vault.

Algeria's other major contribution to the world is natural gas. As the owner of the fifth-largest natural gas reserves, Algeria is the second-largest exporter in the world. Hydrocarbons make up a majority of the nation's revenue and export earnings. Recent trends have placed a greater importance on some of Algeria's lesser resources. Zinc has been increasing utilized for sustainable building and construction. Lead is still widely used in the production of various consumer products, including car batteries, ammunition and weights for lifting. The oil and gas sector of Algeria is the mainstay of the economy; it accounts for about 35 percent of Algeria’s GDP and two-thirds of its total exports.

Algeria gained Independence from France as

Declared on July 3rd. 1962, however independence day is Recognized on July 5th. 1962. France and Algeria had no diplomatic relations until 1965 as a result of the war of independence from 1954 to 1961. Then a civil break from 1991-1999 pitting Islamists against the government. The current president Abdelaziz Bouteflika came to power since 1999 in the midst of the civil war and gained his fourth term of office in the 2014 election. President Bouteflika is credited with curbing the conflict and restoring economic stability according the BBC.

Algeria's population was an estimated 40.4 million,  ethnically Arab-Berber making up about 98% of the population. The Berbers are a semi-normadic ethnic group that historically occupied the Megreb region. They speak the Berber language, which together form the Berber branch of the Afro-asiatic family. Some Berbers are also Sahrawi, who basically identify themselves as owners of Western Sahara. Official languages are Arabic and French and the Berber language.


Major landmarks and tourist sites include:


Cuisine in Algeria has had many influences that have contributed something unique to the country's culinary delights. Over hundreds of years the Berbers, Arabs, Turks, Romans, the French and the Spanish have influenced the cuisine of Algeria. Dishes such as Chorba - spicy lamb or chicken stew with vegetables
Dolma - stuffed vegetables, Bissar - couscous served with chicken and dried vegetables
Djej bil Qasbour - coriander chicken
Brochettes - spicy kebabs, Hariri or Harira - soup served at Ramadan.

When foreigners think of Algerian music, the first genre that springs to mind is rai. Rai music of Algeria has been met with great enthusiasm in France and other European countries. Algeria's music history was largely based on styles from Andalusia that were given a more African feel. Nuubaat music is a combination of already existing music that had a strong Ottoman influence. Hawzii and rabaab were derived from nuubaat. Algerian folk music styles are known as zindalii and hofii.


Trailblazer Travelz offers 

travel information on a wide range of destinations. Learn about your destination today and contact us for a quote.

Need Help?

Booking a major trip is exciting,

but it can also be a bit overwhelming. 

We understand. That's why we have live Travel Experts here to take care of your every need, making your trip stress-free & amazing.


Call Us Today 

UNESCO Heritage sites in Algeria include:


1. Beni Hammad Fort

Beni Hammad Fort, also called Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad (Arabic: قلعة بني حماد‎) is a fortified palatine city in Algeria. Now in ruins, in the 11th century, it served as the first capital of the Hammadid dynasty. It is in the Hodna Mountains northeast of M'Sila, at an elevation of 1,418 metres (4,652 ft), and receives abundant water from the surrounding mountains. Beni Hammad Fort is near the town of Maadid (aka Maadhid), about 225 kilometres (140 mi) southeast of Algiers, in the Maghreb.

In 1980, it was inscribed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, and described as "an authentic picture of a fortified Muslim city."

2. Kasbah of Algiers

A unique Islamic city on the Mediterranean coast, the former site overlooks the Carthaginian trading posts of the 4th century BCE. It contains remains of a citadel, old mosques, and Ottoman-style palaces.

3. M'Zab Valley

The Mozabites ("At Mzab") are a branch of a large Berber tribe, the Iznaten, which lived in large areas of middle southern Algeria. Many Tifinagh letters and symbols are engraved around the Mzab Valley.

After the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb, the Mozabites became Muslims of the Mu'tazili school. After the fall of the Rostemid state, the Rostemid royal family with some of their citizens chose the Mzab Valley as their refuge. However, the Rostemids were Ibadi and sent a preacher (Abu Bakr an-Nafusi) who successfully converted the indigenous Mozabites.

4. Tassili n'Ajjer

The site is in a landscape with 15,000 cave engravings that record climatic changes, animal migrations, and the evolution of human life, dating from 6,000 BCE to the first centuries CE

5. Timgad

A military colony built by Emperor Trajan in 100 CE, the site features cardo and decumanus streets, typical of a Roman town.

6. Tipasa

First a Carthaginian trading center, Tipasa was converted into a military base by the Romans. Heavy Christian influences can be seen from the 3rd and 4th centuries, though Tipasa went into steady decline in the Byzantine period.



Egypt is the largest Arab country and the third largest in the continent and a  transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. This makes Egypt the only Euro Afro Asian country in the world. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba to the east, the Red Sea to the east and south, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Egypt emerged as one of the world's first nation states in the tenth millennium BC. Considered a cradle of civilisationAncient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of MemphisThebesKarnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences including GreekPersianRomanArabOttoman, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.

The history of Egypt is typically divided up into the following periods: Prehistoric, Ancient, Greco-Roman, Medieval and Modern. Prehistoric Egypt spans the period of earliest human settlement - 3100 BC, or the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period. Dominated by hunter-gatherers, semi-permanent dwellings were used during this period, and the development of tools reached Egypt during 40,000 BC. The Khormusan were amongst the first cultures to use advanced tools developed from stone, animal bones and hematite (mineral form of iron).

Desertification forced early Egyptians to settle around the Nile, and adopt a more permanent and sedentary lifestyle around 6,000 BC. The foundation of Dynastic Egypt was laid between 3500 to 3200 BC, as city dwellers began mass-producing mud bricks to build their cities, instead of reeds. During the Naqada III period (3200-3000 BC) the introduction of hieroglyphs and irrigation transpired, as well as the beginning of the Protodynastic period, in which Upper and Lower Egypt was unified. 


Ancient Egypt begins with the early predynastic settlements of the Nile Valley, and continues on until the Roman conquest in 30 BC. According to Egyptian historian Manetho, the first king of Egypt was Menes; however, there are archaeological findings that support the claim that it was Narmer. In the age known as the Old Kingdom (2686-2134 BC) Egypt was ruled by the Third through Sixth Dynasties, and is commonly known as "the Age of the Pyramids." 

Perhaps the most famous of Egypt's landmarks, these pyramids were constructed as tombs for Egyptian Pharaohs (who were regarded as gods) and their consorts. Of the 118 identified today, the pyramids found at Giza are amongst the more famous, and considered to be the largest structures ever built. Resting amongst the Giza pyramids is the Great Sphinx - the largest monolith statue in the world, and the oldest known monumental sculpture - built during the reign of Pharaoh Khafra between 2558-2532 BC.

The government stabilized during the age of the Middle Kingdom, and a renewed prosperity for the country emerged with stronger Nile floods.


With the New Kingdom, the pharaohs set their sights on expanding Egypt's borders, and so the military became a central priority. Egypt's most prominent pharaohs ruled during this period, including: Hatshepsut, Thutmose III, Akhenaten and his wife Nefertiti, Tutankhamun and Ramesses II. In 341 BC, Egypt was conquered by the Persians, and then by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. There was little resistance from the Persians, and the Egyptians welcomed the Greeks with open arms. Under their ruling, the country became a seat of learning and culture; however, the Egyptian culture wasn't completely replaced, as new temples were built Egyptian style, and leaders portrayed themselves as pharaohs. 

Rome took a great interest in Egypt, as they relied heavily on Egyptian imports, and in 30 BC Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire following the defeat of Marc Antony and Queen Cleopatra VII. Greco-Roman Egypt, Compared to their Greek predecessors, the Romans displayed a more hostile attitude towards the Egyptians. Christianity took root in Egypt around the mid-1st century, and as it spread through the country over the next couple hundred years temples were closed and pagan rites banned. Anti-pagan riots sparked during the 3rd century AD, and many public and private religious imagery were destroyed. Consequently, the Egyptian culture began to decline, and while the native population continued to speak their language, hieroglyphic writing slowly fell by the wayside.


The Roman Empire split during the 4th century, and Egypt was placed in the Eastern part of the empire, known as the Byzantine Empire. As their links with the old Greco-Roman world faded, the Byzantine Empire grew increasingly oriental in style. In 639 AD an army of 4,000 Arabs crossed into Egypt from Palestine, and rapidly took control of the region, ending the 975 year Greco-Roman reign. Medieval Egypt, Upon their settlement, the Arabs introduced Islam and Arabic, and subsequently dominated Egypt for many centuries. The Ottoman Turks gained control of Egypt in 1517, and aside from a brief French incursion (1798-1806), the Ottomans remained until the mid-19th century. The Ottoman invasion caused a decline within Egypt's economic system, and, coupled with the effects of plague, exposed the country to foreign attackers. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt developed into a vital transportation hub, but fell heavily into debt. To protect its investments, Britain seized control in 1882.


Modern Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914, then achieved partial independence in 1922, and full sovereignty in 1945. The Egyptian Republic was officially declared on June 18, 1953, and General Muhammad Naguib was appointed the first president. Gamal Abdel Nasser, the leader of the 1952 Egyptian Revolution, forced the resignation of Naguib in 1954, and assumed power in 1956.  In 1967, Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula as well as the Gaza Strip, which had been occupied by Egypt since 1948, and the Six Day War ensued. At wars end, Egypt lost both territories to Israel, and in 1973 launched a surprise attack (the October War) in an attempt to regain control.

A ceasefire was issued by the United Nations on October 24, 1973, and most fighting on the Egyptian front ended a couple of days later. As time moves forward, a rapidly growing population, limited arable land, and on-going dependence on the Nile River, all continue to overtax resources for the country.


The Egyptian government still struggles through economic reforms in the 21st century, and the pressing need for massive investment in communications and infrastructure. The Egyptian Movement for Change (Kefaya) was launched in 2003 as an opposition towards the Mubarak regime, and an effort to create democratic reforms and greater civil liberties. A revolution and widespread protests sparked on January 25, 2011, this time with an objective to remove Mubarak from power. Continuous mass demonstrations and civil resistance began to weaken Mubarak's government, and on February 11, 2011, Mubarak resigned and fled the country. On June 30, 2012, Mohammed Mursi was sworn in as Egypt's new president. Retired Field Marshal Abdel Fattah al-Sisi was elected president in May 2014, almost a year after he removed his elected predecessor, the Muslim Brotherhood's Mohammed Morsi, from office in a coup. 

In recent decades, crude oil, natural gas, and petroleum products have dominated Egypt's mineral industry. However Egypt is also a producer of ferroalloys, gold, iron ore, primary aluminum, steel, secondary copper, lead and zinc, and construction materials such as clay, gypsum, gemstones, dimension stone and raw materials to make glass. Among nonfuel minerals, phosphate rock (around the Red Sea, along the Nile, and in the Western Desert) and iron ore were the most important in terms of value and ore grade. Egypt is the world's heaviest mine country with over 20 million active mines that's over one mine for every 4.2 people in the whole country. Egypt is also the world's largest dates producer.


Ethnic groups of Eastern Hamitic stock make up about 99% of the population of Egypt; these include Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers. They are a product of the intermixture of ancient Egyptians with the invaders of many millennia from various parts of Asia and Africa. The remaining 1% of the population is made up of minorities, including mainly Nubians, Armenians, Greeks, and other Europeans, primarily Italian and French. The language of most of the population is Arabic, a Semitic tongue; the 1971 constitution declares Arabic to be Egypt's official language. Dialects vary from region to region and even from town to town. English and French are spoken by most educated Egyptians and by shopkeepers and others. The ancient language of Pharaonic Egypt, a Hamitic tongue, survives vestigially in the liturgy of the Copts, a sizable Christian sect dating back to the 5th century ad. The Nubians of Upper Egypt speak at least seven dialects of their own unwritten language. There are a small number of Berber-speaking villagers in the western oases.

Major landmarks and tourist sites include:

  • Pyramids of Giza

  • Luxor's Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings

  • Islamic Cairo

  • Aswan

  • Abu Simbel

  • Egyptian Museum

  • White Desert

  • Siwa Oasis

  •  Alexandria

  • St. Catherine's Monastery

  • South Sinai

  • Tanis

  • Abydos Temple

  • Al Wahat and Al Ain Crop District

  • Muzawaka Tombs

  • Samir Lama Memorials

  • Deir al-Hagar and al-Qasr

  • Dakhla Oasis

  •  New Valley Governorate

  • End of the World Cinema

  • Desert Breath

  • Temple of Kom Ombo

  • The Lost City of Heracleion

  • Colossi of Memnon

  • Cairo's City of the Dead

  • Malkata Palace

  • Pyramid of Djoser

  • The Pyramid of Senusret II

  • The Cairo Genizah

  • The Aquarium Grotto Garden

  • Nilometer

  • Agricultural Museum of Cairo

  • Unfinished Obelisk

  • Monastery of Saint Simon


Egyptian cuisine and some of its recipes date back 5000 years and archeologists have even revealed the use of food as a means of payment during ancient times. Of course, there have been some adjustments to the dishes over the years, mainly with the addition of ingredients and styles taken from other cultures (note the dropping of alcoholic drinks has also been a part of this change). Egyptian cuisine depends heavily on legumes such as beans and lentils as well as vegetables and onions making a regular appearance in most dishes. Vegetarians normally have no problem getting by in Egypt since meat has traditionally been expensive and thus less common. Around the Egyptian coast you will find more fish in the meals. The Egyptian Bread Aish also forms part of most of the meals. Did you know that Aish is the Egyptian word for bread and also means life. Also, if you find there is no cutlery, it is common to use your bread to "spoon" the food.  Aish - Aish is the Egyptian traditional pocket bread similar to pita bread. It is made by mixing wheat flour, water and salt then baked. Aish baladi - same as above but it uses whole wheat bread. Baba Ghanoush - Made from grilled eggplant that is peeled then mashed and mixed with tahini (see below), lemon juice, salt, pepper, parsley, cumin and dressed with olive oil. This dip has a smoky flavor and is best served with pita bread. Falafel - (or ta'amiya) is a well-known dish in the Middle East thought to have originated in Egypt. It consists of balls of fava beans (broad beans) or chickpeas that have been deep fried. Fatta - a garlic and white vinegar flavored meat soup served with rice. Traditionally a Nubian dish, Fatta is usually prepared on special occasions such as weddings, a woman's first pregnancy (baby shower) and as the main meal during the Eid al-Adha religious festival. Baklava - Layers of flaky pastry filled with chopped nuts and honey syrup.

In a culture as full of religious rituals as ancient Egypt, music tends to be a significant part of every day life. With countless wall murals showing musicians playing while dancers danced and others stood off and watched. Instruments have been unearthed as well. But, despite knowing how they played, the ancient Egyptian music itself -- the notes, the composition -- is wholly unknown to us. Through the study of hieroglyphs, researchers have learned that there were many ancient Egypt musical instruments. There are depictions of instruments of all kinds, including string, wind and percussion. The hieroglyphs also show those listening to music clapping their hands along with the performances. The sistrum was a metallic instrument held in the hand that was in a “U” shape. There were small metal or bronze pieces tied to the sistrum so that when it was moved, it made sounds. The sound differed depending on the type of metal used. The highest status for a musician in ancient Egypt was for temple musicians as playing music for a particular god or goddess placed someone in a high position in the culture. In addition, musicians who played for the royal family were also held in high regard as were gifted singers.

UNESCO Heritage sites in Egypt include:

1. Abu Mena

The ruins of the former Christian holy city contain a church, a baptistery, basilicas, public buildings, streets, monasteries, houses, and workshops, and were built over the tomb of Menas of Alexandria. The World Heritage Committee designated Abu Mena as an endangered site in 2001, due to cave-ins in the area caused by the clay at the surface, which becomes semi-liquid when met with "excess water.

2. Ancient Thebes with its Necropolis

The former capital of Egypt and city of the Egyptian god Amun contains relics from the height of Ancient Egypt. The temples, palaces and the necropolises of the Valley of the Kings and the Valley of the Queens bear "a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization

3. Historic Cairo

One of the world's oldest Islamic cities and in the middle of urban Cairo, the site dates from the 10th century and reached its golden age in the 14th century. It contains mosques, madrasahhammams and fountains.

4. Memphis and its Necropolis – the Pyramid Fields from Giza to Dahshur

The former capital features funerary monuments, like rock tombs, mastabas, temples, and pyramids. It is one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

5. Nubian Monuments from Abu Simbel to Philae

Located along the Nile, the site contains monuments such as the Temple of Ramesses II and the Sanctuary of Isis.

6. Saint Catherine Area

The orthodox monastery from the 6th century is positioned near Mount Horeb where, according to the Old TestamentMoses received the Tablets of the Law. The region is sacred for Christians, Muslims and Jews.

7. Wadi Al-Hitan (Whale Valley)

Located in western Egypt, the site contains fossil remains of the now extinct Archaeoceti, mapping the evolution of the whales from a land-based to an aquatic mammal.



Libya lies in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chadand Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisiato the west. Libya is mostly desert and much of its population is concentrated along the coast and its immediate hinterland, where Tripoli (Ṭarābulus), the de facto capital, and Banghāzī (Benghazi), another major city, are located. Libya is the fourth largest country on the continent, and is the 16th largest country in the world. Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world.


Once part of the Roman province of New Africa, it was subsequently controlled by the Byzantine and Ottoman empires. In modern times it was occupied by the British and French. There are six distinct historical periods of Libya: Ancient Libya, the Roman era, the Islamic era, Ottoman rule, Italian rule, and the Modern era. The country is made of three historical regions, TripolitaniaFezzan and CyrenaicaThe Ottoman authorities recognized them as separate provinces. Under Italian rule, they were unified to form a single colony, which resulted to independence on December 24th 1951 under King Idris al-Sanusi. 


In 1969, Col Muammar Gaddafi, aged 27, deposes the king in a bloodless military coup. By 1977, Gadhafi had passed all power down to the General People's Committees, claiming that he was only to be known as a symbolic figurehead and nothing more. Libya then officially became known as the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Although Gadhafi claimed to have released power, critics proclaimed that he in fact had given himself virtually unlimited power, and ultimately Gaddafi assumed the title of "King of Kings of Africa" in 2008. Gaddafi ruled for 42 years; until 2011 when the citizens of Libya sparked a full-scale revolt on February 17, 2011 against the Gadhafi regime. Taking a lead from their neighbors to the west and east, as rulers of both Tunisia and Egypt were overturned. A violent civil war followed, and ultimately resulted in the ousting and death of Muammar Gaddafi, as well as the collapse of his 34-year-old Jamahiriya state. Libyans voted in a first ever parliamentary election, since Gadhafi's dictatorship, on July 7, 2012. A few weeks later, the General National Congress was given the task of forming an interim government and drafting a new constitution. chief of state: Chairman, Presidential Council, Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015) head of government: Prime Minister Fayiz al-SARAJ (since December 2015). In recent years the country has been a key springboard for migrants heading for Europe. Libya, unfortunately has used this as an opportunity to enslave them. A video footage  showed shocked the world and focused international attention on the exploitation of migrants and refugees. As a result, European and African leaders immediately took action to stop the abuses. Most of the African countries has already begun to evacuate thousands of migrants stuck in Libyan detention camps.

In 1959, oil reserves were discovered, and the income generated from petroleum sales pushed Libya into an extremely wealthy state. Libya’s proven oil reserves represent a large part of Africa’s total reserves and about 3 percent of the world’s total reserves. Libyan crude oil is low in sulfur content and therefore causes less corrosion and less pollution than most crude oils, which has made it popular in countries that have imposed stringent emissions standards. Apart from petroleum, the other natural resources are natural gas and gypsum. Oil and natural gas together accounted for almost three-fourths of the national income and nearly all of the country’s export earnings.

The majority of the Libyan population is today identified as Arab, that is, Arabic-speaking and Arab-cultured. They claim descent from the Bedouin Arab tribes of the Banū Hilāl and the Banū Sulaym. However, according to DNA studies, 90% of that Arab Libyan population is, in fact, Arabized Berbers, while Berber Libyans, those who retain Berber language and Berber culture, comprise a minority. There are about 140 tribes and clans in Libya.

Cuisine in Libya is one of the most important activities of any Libyan family. The Libyans always say: one must eat well. Olive oil is the main ingredient of nearly any dish or meal in Libya, and it is almost impossible to prepare any Libyan food without it. Its use in North Africa goes back thousands of years, and its healing goodness and life-prolonging properties were well known to the ancient Libyans and Egyptians. Offering of the olive branch to the Libyan oracle of Siwa's God Amon indicates its sacred nature and antiquity. Its use in Mediterranean diets has always been associated with good health and preventing major diseases like stroke, heart disease and lung cancer. The healing properties are found mainly in the extra virgin olive oil (and virgin olive oil), which is naturally produced, unrefined oil (also called "cold pressed"); while the active ingredients of the second type, known as "pure oil" or "olive oil", were badly destroyed by the chemical processes used to extract the oil. According to recent research extra-virgin olive oil contains a natural painkiller similar to ibuprofen (found in headache tablets), and its active ingredient oleocanthal inhibits the activity of enzymes involved in inflammation just as ibuprofen does. here are four main ingredients of  traditional Libyan food: olives (and olive oil), palm dates, grains and milk. Popular dishes includes: Utshu, A'eish or Bazin (dish made of dough and sauce); Z'ummeeta or zumita(doughy dish made of mixing water with flour); Couscous ((Kesksoo) the couscous, made of wheat or barley, ground into coarse flour); Ikerkoushen (cubes of sun-dried meat fried in oil); Ghadames (Baking Bread in Hot Sand); Mb'atten (is really a Libyan specialty dish made of slicing potato lengthwise into thin slices and keeping each two slices joined together at the base, to form a sandwich, which will be stuffed with minced meat and herbs and then fried); Libyan Black & Green Tea.

Various kinds of Arab music are popular such as Andalusian music, locally known as Malouf, Sha'abi and Arab classical music. The Tuareg live in the southern, Saharan part of the country, and have their own distinctive folk music. There is little or no pop music industry. Among the Tuareg, women are the musicians. They play a one-stringed violin called an Anzad, as well as a variety of drums. Two of the most famous musicians of Libya are Ahmed Fakroun and Mohammed Hassan. Among Libyan Arabs, instruments include the Zokra (a bagpipe), flute (made of bamboo), tambourine, Oud (a fretless lute) and Derbakki, a goblet drum held sideways and played with the fingers. Complication clapping is also common in folk music. Traveling Bedouin poet-singers have spread many popular songs across Libya. Among their styles is Huda, the camel driver's song, the rhythm of which is said to mimic the feet of a walking camel.

Landmarks and major tourist sites in Libya includes: Leptis Magna Historic Site; 

UNESCO Heritage sites in Libya include:

1. Archaeological Site of Cyrene

The formerly Greek colony was Romanized and transformed into a capital, until it was destroyed by the 365 Crete earthquake. The thousand-year-old ruins have remained renowned since the 18th century.

2. Archaeological Site of Leptis Magna

The Roman city of Leptis Magna was enlarged by Emperor Septimius Severus, who was born there. Public monuments, a harbour, a marketplace, storehouses, shops, and homes were among the reasons for its induction into the list.

3. Archaeological Site of Sabratha

A Phoenician trading-post that served as an outlet for the products of the African hinterland, Sabratha was part of the short-lived Numidian Kingdom of Massinissa before being Romanized and rebuilt in the 2nd and 3rd centuries.

4. Old Town of Ghadamès

Located in an oasis, Ghadames is one of the oldest pre-Saharan cities and represents a traditional architecture with vertical division of functions.

5. Rock-Art Sites of Tadrart Acacus

Thousands of cave paintings are visible in different styles, dating from 12,000 BCE to 100 CE.


Morocco is a mountainous country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa and lies directly across the Strait of Gibraltar from Spain. Strait of Gibraltar, Latin Fretum Herculeum, channel connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean, lying between southernmost Spain and northwestern most Africa. The strait is an important gap, averaging 1,200 feet (365 meters) in depth in the arc formed by the Atlas Mountains of North Africa and the high plateau of Spain, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. Morocco borders Algeria to the east and southeast, Western Sahara to the south, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. It is the only African country with coastal exposure to both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Its area—excluding the territory of Western Sahara, which Morocco controls.

Controlled by Carthage from an early date, the region was later the westernmost province of the Roman Empire. Following the Arab conquest of the late 7th century. Subsequent Moroccan kingdoms enjoyed political influence that extended beyond the coastal regions, and in the 11th century the first native Amazigh dynasty of North Africa, the Almoravids, gained control of an empire stretching from Andalusian (southern) Spain to parts of sub-Saharan Africa.  In 1912, Morocco became a French protectorate. On August 20th 1953, the French who were occupying Morocco at the time forced Mohammed V and his family into exile on Corsica. His uncle, Mohammed Ben Aarafa, was placed on the throne. His full name was Sidi Mohammed ben Yusef, or Son of (Sultan) Yusef, upon whose death he succeeded to the throne. He was a member of the Alaouite Dynasty. Mohammed V and his family were then transferred to Madagascar in January 1954. Mohammed V returned from exile on 16 November 1955, and was again recognized as Sultan after active opposition to the French protectorate. In February 1956 he successfully negotiated with France and Spain for the independence of Morocco, and in 1957 took the title of King.

Although the country is rapidly modernizing and enjoys a rising standard of living, it retains much of its ancient architecture and even more of its traditional customs. Morocco’s largest city and major Atlantic Ocean port is Casablanca, an industrial and commercial center. The capital, Rabat, lies a short distance to the north on the Atlantic coast. Other port cities include Tangier, on the Strait of Gibraltar, Agadir, on the Atlantic, and Al-Hoceïma, on the Mediterranean Sea. The city of Fès is said to have some of the finest souks, or open-air markets, in all of North Africa. Scenic and fertile, Morocco well merits the praise of a native son, the medieval traveler Ibn Baṭṭūṭah, who wrote that “it is the best of countries, for in it fruits are plentiful, and running water and nourishing food are never exhausted.”

With its acquisition of Western Sahara, Morocco came to possess some two-thirds of the world’s reserves of phosphates, used for the manufacture of fertilizers and other products. Low world prices for phosphates, however, have hindered production. Other minerals include iron ore and coal, mined for Morocco’s domestic use, and barite, manganese, lead, and zinc, which are exported in small quantities. Its hydroelectric potential is considerable and now being tapped. The services sector accounts for just over half of GDP and industry, made up of mining, construction and manufacturing, is an additional quarter. The industries that recorded the highest growth are tourism, telecoms, information technology, and textile.

Morocco is composed mainly of Arabs (Arab-Berber,) and Imazighen or an admixture of the two. Sizable numbers of Imazighen live mainly in the country’s mountainous regions—long areas of refuge for them where they can preserve their language and culture. Some segments of the population are descendants of refugees from Spain who fled from the Reconquista, the Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th century. Jews constituted a fairly large minority until the mid-20th century, when, in the aftermath of the foundation of Israel and the start of the Arab-Israeli conflict, many felt compelled to leave the country; most emigrated to Israel, Europe, and South and North America, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. Morocco’s official languages are Arabic and Berber. The country's distinctive group of Moroccan Arabic dialects is referred to as Darija. French is widely used in governmental institutions, media, mid-size and large companies, international commerce with French-speaking countries, and often in international diplomacy and is also taught as an obligatory language at all schools. Moroccans spoke a foreign language other than French. English, while far behind French in terms of number of speakers, is the first foreign language of choice, since French is obligatory, among educated youth and professionals. Spanish is mostly spoken in northern Morocco and the Spanish Sahara because Spain had previously occupied those areas. Moroccans in regions formerly controlled by Spain watch Spanish television and have interactions in Spanish on a daily basis.

Notable landmarks and tourist sites includes:

  • Medina of Fez (Fes)

  • Ben Youssef Madrasa (Marrakech)

  • Jemaa el-Fnaa (Marrakech)

  • Bahia Palace (Marrakech)

  • Chefchaouen Old City (Chefchaouen)

  • Medina of Marrakesh (Marrakech)

  • Medina of Essaouira (Essaouira)

  • Hassan II Mosque (Casablanca)

  • Seafront promenade (Agadir)

  • Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou (Ait Ben Haddou)

  • Medina (Chefchaouen)

  • Kasbah Amridil (Skoura)

  • Volubilis (Meknes-Tafilalet Region)

  • Mausoleum of Mohammad V (Rabat)

  • Marrakech Souk (Marrakech)

  • Essaouira Ramparts (Essaouira)

  • Chellah (Rabat)

  • Koutoubia Mosque and Minaret (Marrakech)

  • Kasbah des Oudaias (Rabat)

  • Essaouira Fishing Port (Essaouira)

  • El Badi Palace (Marrakech)

  • Station Marrakesh (Marrakech).


One of the great cuisines of the world, Moroccan cooking abounds with subtle spices and intriguing flavor combinations. Most popular  dishes includes: Fish chermoula, Kefta tagine, B’ssara, Zaalouk, B’stilla,Tagine,  Harira, Makouda, Couscous, Mint tea.

From the ancient folk pieces of the Berber mountain communities, to the Arab-Andalusian music of the cities, to the roots-fusion that you'll hear blaring from taxi radios and café ghetto blasters, music is the ultimate expression of Morocco's culture. Musical styles includes; Sufism, a mystical branch of Islam,  Milhun, a semi-classical sung poetry associated with artisans and traders. Gharnati, this kind of Arba Andalusian music is mainly played in Algeria but is also hear in the Moroccan centers of Rabad and Oujda, The Berber Music, Berbers are the first known inhabitants of Africa’s north-western corner, The Gnawa are descendants of slaves, brought across the Sahara by the Arabs, who claim spiritual descent from Sidi Bilal, the first muezzin, Rwais are Cheuh Berber musicians from the Sous valley who perform ancient musical theatre involving poetry, fine clothes, jewels and elaborate rwais. Nuba, originally there was a nuba for every hour of the day, but most have been lost, Andalous Music, Morocco's Arab-Andalusian classical tradition evolved 1000 years ago in Moorish Spain and can be heard, with variations, throughout North Africa.

UNESCO Heritage sites in Morocco include:


1. Archaeological Site of Volubilis.

The important Roman outpost of Volubilis was founded in the 3rd century BCE to become the capital of Mauretania. It contained many buildings, the remains of which have survived extensively to this day.

  2. Historic City of Meknes.

The former capital was founded in the 11th century and turned into a city with Spanish-Moorish influence during the 17th and 18th centuries.


3. Ksar of Ait-Ben-Haddou.

Is an ighrem (fortified village in English) (ksar in Arabic), along the former caravan route between the Sahara and Marrakech in present-day Morocco. Most citizens attracted by the tourist trade live in more modern dwellings in a village on the other side of the river, although there are four families still living in the ancient village. Inside the walls of the ksar are half a dozen (Kasbahs) or merchants houses and other individual dwellings, and is a great example of Moroccan earthen clay architecture.

Aït Benhaddou has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.

4. Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)

The fortified seaport built during the late 18th century has a mix of North African and European architecture, and was a major trading hub between the Sahara and Europe.


5. Medina of Fez

The former capital was founded in the 9th century and features the world's oldest university. The urban fabric and main monuments date from the 13th and 14th centuries.

6. Medina of Marrakesh

The town was founded in the 1070s and remained a political, economic, and cultural centre for a long time. Monuments from that period include the Koutoubia Mosque, the kasbah, and the battlements. The city also holds newer features, including palaces.


7. Medina of Tétouan (formerly known as Titawin)

Morocco's most complete medina served as the main point of contact between Morocco and Andalusia during the 8th century. The town was rebuilt by Andalusian refugees following the reconquista.

8. Portuguese City of Mazagan (El Jadida)

The fortification, akin to Renaissance military design from the early 16th century, was taken over by Morocco in 1769. Surviving buildings include the cistern and a Gothic church.


9. Rabat, Modern Capital and Historic City: a Shared Heritage.

Rebuilt under the direction of the French from 1912 to the 1930s, the city blends historic and modern features, such as botanical gardens, the Hassan Mosque, and the remnants of Moorish and Andalusian settlements from the 17th century.



Sudan is also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan. The name Sudan derives from the Arabic expression bilād al-sūdān (“land of the blacks”), by which medieval Arab. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest. It is the third largest country in Africa. The River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, but it became independent in 2011 Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in economic, political and social domination between the Northern Sudanese and the non-Muslim (Christian), non-Arab southern Sudanese.  The government of Sudan gave its blessing for an independent South Sudan, where the mainly Christian and Animist people had for decades been struggling against rule by the Arab Muslim north.


The first civil war ended in 1972, but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords; a final Naivasha peace treaty of January 2005 granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years, after which a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held. In 2007, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement withdrew from the government due to the slow implementation of the 2005 peace agreement. In July 2008, ten criminal charges were leveled against President Omar al-Bashir, in which he was accused of sponsoring war crimes and crimes against humanity. Despite the charges against him, al-Bashir was a candidate in the 2010 Sudanese presidential election, and ultimately declared the winner. The current president was elected in

Sudan is one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Oil is currently the main export and production is increasing. Agriculture production is the most important sector for the economy, employing 80% of the workforce. Oil is a lucrative natural resource. mineral deposits, but not all are exploited. They include gold, uranium, chromite, gypsum, mica, marble, and iron ore. Sudan’s irrigated agriculture is thus dependent on abundant supplies of water from the two main branches of the Nile to produce the bulk of the country’s commercial crops. Sudan is a leading producer of gum Arabic, a water-soluble gum obtained from acacia trees and used in the production of adhesives, candy, and pharmaceuticals. The northern woodlands have been deforested by the extraction of wood for fuel and charcoal.


Sudan has 597 groups that speak over 400 different languages and dialects. Sudanese Arabs are by far the largest ethnic group in Sudan. They are almost entirely Muslims; while the majority speak Sudanese Arabic, some other Arab tribes speak different Arabic dialects like Awadia and Fadnia tribes and Bani Arak tribes who speak Najdi Arabic; and Rufa'a, Bani Hassan, Al-Ashraf, Kinanah and Rashaida who speak Hejazi Arabic.  The Arab presence is estimated at 70% of the Sudanese population. Others include the Arabized ethnic groups of Nubians, Zaghawa, and Copts. Approximately 70 languages are native to Sudan. Sudanese Arabic is the most widely spoken language in the country. It is the variety of Arabic, an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch spoken throughout Sudan. Official languages are Arabic and English.

Cuisine in Sudan It may seem unusual to a Western palate, but porridge is actually one of the main foods eaten in Sudan – and not just for breakfast! Generally made with wheat, sorghum or corn flour, the starch is served alongside stews. Broad bean balls are also popular. Known as tamayya, the dish is often prepared a group, Ful Medames Sudanese Fava Beans, Kofta, meatballs in tomato sauce, Fenugreek porridge – medeeda hilba, Mahshi, stuffed zucchini and bell peppers, Kahk Egyptian Cookies, Tamarind Juice.


According to Sudanese Embassy, Sudan’s "whirling dervishes" are famed throughout the world for their spell-binding dances, in which they are accompanied by rhythmic drumming, as they gradually work themselves into a trance. Dervishes are Muslim devotees. Lyrics are all-important in Sudanese music, with new words often made up on the spot for a special occasion such as a wedding. Traditional instruments include tom-toms, rababas (viol-like stringed instruments with a hide-covered body), and the oud (a lute).

Landmarks and major tourist sites in Sudan includes:

  • Pyramids of Meroe,

  • Pyramids of Gebel Barkal,

  • Nile Street (Khartoum), and Khartoum – Sudan’s capital has a wealth of tourist attractions that include;

  • The National Museum

  • The Omdurman camel market.

  • The leading archaeological sites in this city are Meroe, Naga, Nuri, Bajrawiya, among many others.

  • El Kurru Tombs (Karima),

  • Gebel Barkal (Karima),

  • Al Sabalouga (Sabaloka Gorge) (Khartoum), Presidential Palace (Khartoum),

  • Petrified Forest (Merowe),

  • Red Sea – The coastline of the Red Sea is one of Sudan’s major attractions. The crystal-clear water and the natural charm of the coral reefs and marine gardens are the top reasons for visiting this Sudan wonder.

  • Dinder National Park – One of the largest wildlife parks in the world, Dinder National Park houses a wide variety of wild animal species.

  • Jebel Marra – This is a place of exceptional beauty because of its volcanic lakes, lovely resorts, waterfalls, and moderate climate.

UNESCO Heritage sites in Sudan include:

1. Archaeological Sites of the Island of Meroe

The site was the centre of the Kingdom of Kush, a major force active from the 8th century BCE to the 4th century CE. It is home to pyramids, temples, and domestic buildings, among other vestiges.

2. Gebel Barkal and the Sites of the Napatan Region

The five sites in the Nile Valley feature temples that are testimonial to the Napatan and Meroitic cultures. The ruins around Gebel Barkal include at least 13 temples and 3 palaces, that were for the first time described by European explorers in the 1820s. In 1862 five inscriptions from the Third Intermediate Period were recovered by an Egyptian officer and transported to the Cairo Museum, but not until 1916 were scientific archeological excavations performed by a joint expedition of Harvard University and the Museum of Fine Arts of Boston under the direction of George Reisner. From the 1970s, explorations continued by a team from the University of Rome La Sapienza, under the direction of Sergio Donadoni, that was joined by another team from the Boston Museum, in the 1980s, under the direction of Timothy Kendall. The larger temples, such as that of Amun, are even today considered sacred to the local population.

3. Sanganeb Marine National Park and Dungonab Bay – Mukkawar Island Marine National Park

Situated in the central Red Sea, Sanganeb, Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island feature a diverse system of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, beaches and islets, and host populations of seabirds, marine mammals, fish, sharks, turtles, manta rays and dugongs.



Tunisia is the smallest country in North Africa by land, and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya in the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east.Tunisia’s accessible Mediterranean Sea coastline and strategic location have attracted conquerors and visitors throughout the ages, and its ready access to the Sahara, according the Encyclopedia Britannica. Tunisia’s people are renowned for their conviviality and easygoing approach to daily life, qualities that Albert Memmi captured in his 1955 autobiographical novel Pillar of Salt.


Geographically, both the Sahara desert and Atlas mountains played a large role in ancients times. According to Greek legend, Dido, a princess of Tyre, was the first outsider to settle among the native tribes of what is now Tunisia when she founded the city of Carthage in the 9th century. Also, Tunisia was a Roman province. Vandals occupied the region during the 5th century, with Byzantines taking over during the 6th century, and Arabs following in the 8th century. In 1534, under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place. Permanent acquisition of Tunisia occurred in 1574, under Kapudan Pasha Uluc Ali Reis, and the Ottomans retained the region until French occupation in 1881.

Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881, and the creation of a protectorate. In 1534, under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place. Permanent acquisition of Tunisia occurred in 1574, under Kapudan Pasha Uluc Ali Reis, and the Ottomans retained the region until French occupation in 1881. Rivalry between French and Italian interests in Tunisia culminated in a French invasion in 1881, and the creation of a protectorate. Tunisia became an independent state in 1956. The country's first president, Habib Bourguiba, established a strict one-party state, and dominated the country for 31 years, repressing Islamic fundamentalism and establishing rights for women unmatched by any other Arab nation. In 1987, Bourguiba was declared medically unfit to continue as president and Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, was his successor. He has won every election since 1987, including his fifth term at the 2009 elections.

On December 17, 2010, a 26-year old street vendor set himself on fire in protest of the confiscation of his wares and the humiliation that was inflicted on him by a municipal official. This act ultimately jump started the Tunisian revolution. Anger and violence culminated into mass protests of the social and political issues in the country. On January 14, 2011, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali stepped down, after 23 years in power, and the government was dissolved. Protests continued on through the remainder of 2011, and on December 12th veteran human rights activist, Moncef Marzouki, was elected president, and a new government was issued thereafter. In December 2014, Beji Caid Essebsi came to office after winning the first free presidential election. Youssef Chahed became the seventh prime minister taking office in August 2016.

Tunisia has few mineral resources and its principal mineral resource was phosphate prior to the discovery of oil. Oil was  discovered in 1964 at El Borma oil field near its frontier with Algeria. One-third of its oil is exported, and the remainder is used by domestic chemical industries. Tunisia is the 14th biggest oil producing nations in Africa and the 61st largest oil producer in the world with a daily production capacity of 59,000 barrels. Exporting is the main source of income for the country. It is ranked as the most competitive economy in Africa and has attracted international companies such as Airbus and Hewlett-Packard (HP). Agriculture employs a large part of the workforce.

Tunisia’s culture is highly diverse, in part because of long periods of Ottoman and then French rule but also because populations of Jews and Christians have lived among a Muslim majority for centuries. Similarly, the capital, Tunis, blends ancient Arab souks and mosques and modern-style office buildings into one of the most handsome and lively cities in the region. Majority of the population is Arab Berber. The Ottoman influence has been particularly significant in forming the Turco-Tunisian community. Arabic is the official language. French came into wider use after independence for the purpose of education. English and Italian are used on a smaller scale.

Cuisine in Tunisia is a combination of French, Arabic, Mediterranean and Middle Eastern flavors. Like all countries in the Mediterranean basin, Tunisia offers a "sun cuisine," based mainly on olive oil, spices, tomatoes, seafood (a wide range of fish) and meat from rearing (lamb). harissa is a staple side to every Tunisian meal. Popular dishes includes: Tunisian harissa, Fettuccine with fresh seafood and a green harissa dressing, Chicken meatballs with preserved lemon and harissa relish, Grilled red mullet with lemon and celery salad, Fricassee salad with grilled cedar plank salmon, Pasta with bharat-spiced chicken and vegetables, Grilled peaches, apricots and figs with scented yogurt, couscous.

The country is best-known for Malouf, a kind of music imported from Andalusia after the Spanish conquest in the 15th century. The roots of Malouf traditional Tunisian music date back to a Muslim musician composer and poet named Ziryab from Bagdad in Iraq. The term Malouf means “familiar” or “customary”. In Libya also have Malouf music with lyrics dialect differences from the Tunisian one. In Morocco it’s known as Andalusi or Ala music, in Algeria is called Gharnata. Between these countries the Malouf music differs in the melody and rhythmic articulation. Malouf is based on the Qasidah classical Arabic poetry form and also include muwashshah, a post classical more free form. The most important part of the Malouf composition is the Nuba. Modern music festivals in Tunisia include Tabarka Jazz Festival, Testour's Arab Andalusian Music Festival and the Sahara Festival in Douz.

Landmarks and major tourist sites includes:

UNESCO Heritage sites in Tunisia include:

1. Amphitheatre of El Jem

Is an oval amphitheatre in the Roman city of Thysdrus (actual El Djem, Tunisia). It is listed by UNESCO since 1979 as a World Heritage Site. The amphitheatre was built around 238 AD in Thysdrus, located in the Roman province of Africa Proconsulare in present-day El Djem, Tunisia. It is one of the best preserved Roman stone ruins in the world, and is unique in Africa. As other amphitheatres in the Roman Empire, it was built for spectator events, and it is one of the biggest amphitheatres in the world. The estimated capacity is nearly 35,000, and the sizes of the big and the small axes are respectively 148 metres (486 ft) and 122 metres (400 ft). The amphitheatre is built of stone blocks, located on a flat ground, and is exceptionally well conserved.

The amphitheatre of El Jem is the third amphitheatre built on the same place. The belief is that it was constructed by the local proconsul Gordian, who became the emperor as Gordian III. The local Romanized population sought here shelter during the attacks of Vandals in 430 AD and Arabs in 647 AD. In the Middle Ages, it served as a fortress.

2. Archaeological Site of Carthage

was the centre or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia. The city developed from a Phoenician colony into the capital of an empire dominating the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. The legendary Queen Dido is regarded as the founder of the city, though her historicity has been questioned. According to accounts by Timaeus of Tauromenium, she purchased from a local tribe the amount of land that could be covered by an oxhide. Cutting the skin into strips, she laid out her claim and founded an empire that would become, through the Punic Wars, the only existential threat to the Roman Empire until the coming of the Vandals several centuries later.

3. Dougga / Thugga

The site features the ruins of Dougga, a former capital of a LibyanPunic state, which flourished under Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, but declined in the Islamic period.

4. Ichkeul National Park

Ichkeul Lake and the surrounding wetlands is a destination for hundreds of thousands of migrating birds, including ducks, geese, storks and pink flamingos. It was once part of a chain that extended across North Africa.

5. Kairouan

The former capital was founded in 670 and flourished in the 9th century. Its heritage includes the Mosque of Uqba and the Mosque of the Three Gates.

6. Medina of Sousse

A prime example of a town from the early Islamic period, the city was an important port during the 9th century.

7. Medina of Tunis

The medina holds 700 monuments, including palaces, mosques, mausoleums, madrasah and fourtains, testifying to Tunis' golden age from the 12th to the 16th century.

8. Punic Town of Kerkuane and its Necropolis

The city was abandoned in 250 BCE during the First Punic War, and is the only surviving example of a PhoenicioPunic settlement.

Tunisia’s people are renowned for their conviviality and easygoing approach to daily life, qualities that Albert Memmi captured in his 1955 autobiographical novel Pillar of Salt: We shared the ground floor of a shapeless old building, a sort of two-room apartment. The kitchen, half of it roofed over and the rest an open courtyard, was a long vertical passage toward the light. But before reaching this square of pure blue sky, it received, from a multitude of windows, all the smoke, the smells, and the gossip of our neighbours. At night, each locked himself in his room, but in the morning, life was always communal.